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COPYRIGHT IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

A Guide to National Implementation of the European Directive, Second Edition

BRIGITTE LINDNER, TED SHAPIRO

This substantially revised second edition evaluates the Directive on Copyright in the Information Society and its interpretation by the European Court of Justice in the light of its implementation and application in the EU’s 28 member states. Following the initial implementation of the Directive, many member states have enacted further legislation to supplement or refine their earlier implementation: this edition will take these important developments into account.
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EXTENDED CONTENTS

Extended contents

List of contributors

Preface to the second edition

Foreword by Jörg Reinbothe

Table of cases

Table of legislation

PART I

1   The WIPO Treaties

      Brigitte Lindner

INTRODUCTION 1.001

1. BACKGROUND 1.007

2. BENEFITS OF THE WIPO TREATIES 1.015

2.1 Benefits for authors 1.019

2.2 Benefits for performers 1.025

2.3 Benefits for producers of phonograms 1.030

2.4 Balancing of protection with the public interest 1.033

3. CHALLENGES OF THE WIPO TREATIES 1.046

3.1 Implementation issues with a high level of discretion 1.052

3.2 Implementation issues with a medium level of discretion 1.076

3.3 Implementation issues with a low level of discretion 1.098

CONCLUSION 1.101

PART II

2   Directive 2001/29/EC on copyright in the information society

      Ted Shapiro

1. INTRODUCTION AND LEGISLATIVE HISTORY 2.001

1.1 Preliminary remarks 2.001

1.2 Legislative history 2.011

2. RIGHTS 2.016

2.1 The reproduction right 2.018

2.2 Communication to the public/making available right 2.022

2.3 Distribution 2.085

3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 2.086

3.1 General principles: three-step test, contractual freedom, restrictive interpretation and fundamental rights 2.086

3.2 Exception for temporary copies 2.097

3.3 Catalogue exceptions 2.107

3.4 Private copying 2.114

3.5 Collective licensing/management of rights 2.158

3.6 Extended collective licensing 2.163

3.7 Orphan Works Directive 2.168

4. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 2.173

4.1 The act of circumvention 2.175

4.2 Preparatory acts of circumvention 2.177

4.3 ‘Effective technological measures’ 2.179

4.4 When does a particular form of circumvention infringe Article 62.183

4.5 Playability 2.202

4.6 The intervention mechanism – the relation to exceptions and limitations 2.203

4.7 TPMs in Marrakesh and the Proposed Directive on Copyright in the DSM 2.215

5. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 2.217

6. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 2.218

6.1 Injunctions against intermediaries 2.219

6.2 Article 8(3) before the Court of Justice 2.223

7. CONCLUSION 2.240

PART III   IMPLEMENTATION OF DIRECTIVE 2001/29/EC IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

3   Austria

      Florian Philapitsch

LEGISLATIVE PROCEDURES 3.003

1. RIGHTS 3.008

1.1 Reproduction 3.008

1.2 Communication to the public and making available 3.009

1.3 Distribution 3.016

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 3.022

2.1 The three-step test – ignored or really ‘applied in practice’? 3.022

2.2 Lawful source – the sound of ‘eloquent silence’ 3.027

2.3 Temporary reproduction 3.036

2.4 Catalogue exceptions and limitations 3.037

3. THE AUSTRIAN COPYRIGHT LEVY SYSTEM 3.063

3.1 The ‘reprography levy’ 3.064

3.2 The new ‘storage media’ levy 3.065

3.3 AustroMechana v Amazon 3.069

4. PROTECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 3.076

5. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 3.092

6. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 3.096

7. CONCLUSION 3.103

4   Belgium

      Benoit Michaux

LEGAL FRAMEWORK 4.001

1. THE EXCLUSIVE REPRODUCTION RIGHT 4.005

1.1 The mere confirmation of a broad notion 4.005

1.2 The Copiepresse v Google case 4.009

1.3 The exclusive distribution right and the exhaustion principle 4.021

2. THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT OF COMMUNICATION TO THE PUBLIC 4.024

2.1 What is communication ‘to the public’? 4.027

2.2 Who makes a communication to the public? 4.032

2.3 What is an unauthorized act of communication to the public? 4.039

3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 4.040

3.1 General principles 4.040

3.2 Implementation of Article 5(1) of Directive 2001/29/EC 4.047

3.3 Other exceptions 4.050

3.4 Public lending 4.058

3.5 Mandatory collective administration and extended collective licensing 4.062

3.6 The freedom of speech 4.066

4. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 4.069

4.1 Definition of technological measures 4.069

4.2 Protection against circumvention 4.073

4.3 Protection against preparatory acts 4.076

4.4 Intervention mechanism 4.080

4.5 Exclusion of interactive services from the intervention mechanism 4.083

4.6 Remedies and sanctions 4.084

4.7 Playability 4.087

5. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 4.091

6. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 4.093

6.1 Injunctions in general 4.093

6.2 Implementation of Article 8(3) of Directive 2001/29/EC 4.107

6.3 Damages 4.119

CONCLUSION 4.122

5   Bulgaria

      Velizar Sokolov

INTRODUCTION 5.01

1. RIGHTS 5.13

1.1 Reproduction 5.16

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 5.20

1.3 Distribution 5.29

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 5.35

3. MANDATORY COLLECTIVE ADMINISTRATION 5.45

4. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 5.47

4.1 Definitions 5.50

4.2 Sanctions 5.53

5. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 5.58

6. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES FOR PROTECTION. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 8(3) OF THE DIRECTIVE 5.62

6.1 Civil remedies for protection 5.63

6.2 Provisional measures 5.65

6.3 Administrative penal procedure 5.69

6.4 Border measures 5.71

6.5 Criminal remedies for protection 5.72

6.6 Sanctions 5.76

CONCLUSION 5.79

6   Croatia

      Romana Matanovac Vučković

INTRODUCTION: IN PARTICULAR LEGISLATIVE HISTORY/DEBATE 6.01

1. RIGHTS 6.06

1.1 The right of reproduction 6.10

1.2 The right of communication to the public 6.18

1.3 Distribution right 6.31

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 6.35

2.1 Temporary acts of reproduction 6.38

2.2 Catalogue of exceptions in relation to the reproduction right 6.39

2.3 Catalogue of exceptions in relation to the reproduction and the distribution rights 6.45

2.4 Catalogue of exceptions in relation to the reproduction right and communication to the public right 6.48

2.5 Catalogue of exceptions in relation to the communication to the public right 6.51

2.6 Catalogue of exceptions in relation to the reproduction right, distribution right and communication to the public right 6.52

2.7 Catalogue of exceptions in relation to all economic rights 6.55

2.8 Orphan works 6.59

2.9 Other particular national features which relate to limitations and exceptions 6.60

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 6.64

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 6.71

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 6.74

6. PARTICULAR FEATURES AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL 6.78

CONCLUSIONS 6.81

7   Cyprus

      Achilleas Demetriades and Nicoletta Epaminonda

INTRODUCTION 7.01

1. RIGHTS 7.09

1.1 Reproduction 7.15

1.2 Communication to the public 7.20

1.3 Distribution 7.25

1.4 Orphan works 7.28

1.5 Collective management 7.29

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 7.30

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 7.34

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 7.40

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 7.44

5.1 Civil actions 7.45

5.2 Criminal actions 7.56

6. ANY OTHER PARTICULAR FEATURES AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL 7.65

7. LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK 7.69

CONCLUSION 7.75

8   Czech Republic

      Veronika Křížová, Martin Valoušek and Gabriela Kadlecová

INTRODUCTION 8.01

1. RIGHTS 8.07

1.1 Review of the transposition of Directive 2001/29/EC into Czech legal system 8.07

1.2 Fundamental case law 8.13

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 8.32

2.1 General principles 8.32

2.2 Copyright exceptions 8.35

2.3 Other exemptions on a national level 8.42

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 8.45

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 8.48

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 8.49

6. ANY OTHER FEATURES AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL 8.56

7. LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK 8.60

9   Denmark

      Peter Schønning

INTRODUCTION 9.01

1. RIGHTS 9.03

1.1 Reproduction right 9.03

1.2 Right of communication to the public 9.10

1.3 The distribution right 9.19

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 9.25

2.1 General principles 9.25

2.2 Article 5(1) – temporary reproduction 9.30

2.3 Catalogue exceptions 9.35

2.4 Collective administration 9.46

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 9.52

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 9.62

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 9.64

FINAL REMARKS 9.71

10  Estonia

      Viive Näslund

INTRODUCTION 10.01

1. PROTECTED RIGHTS 10.02

1.1 General overview of protected rights 10.02

1.2 Right of reproduction 10.05

1.3 Right of making the work available to the public 10.06

1.4 Distribution right 10.07

2. FREE USE OF WORKS 10.09

2.1 Basis for limitation of copyright 10.09

2.2 Use of works without the authorization of the author and without payment of remuneration 10.10

2.3 Use of works without authorization of the author but with payment of remuneration 10.21

2.4 Use of orphan works 10.26

3. PROTECTION OF RIGHTS 10.33

3.1 Who can protect the rights? 10.33

3.2 How to protect the rights? 10.35

3.3 What happens if the rights are violated? 10.42

CONCLUSION 10.49

11  Finland

      Kristiina Harenko

INTRODUCTION 11.01

1. EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS 11.03

1.1 Reproduction 11.03

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 11.04

1.3 Distribution 11.08

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 11.11

2.1 General principles, three-step test and lawful source 11.11

2.2 Article 5(1) – exception for certain temporary copies 11.15

2.3 Catalogue of exceptions 11.17

2.4 Extended collective licensing 11.23

2.5 Mandatory collective licensing 11.28

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 11.31

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 11.38

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 11.39

6. ANY OTHER PARTICULAR FEATURES AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL 11.49

LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK/CONCLUSIONS 11.54

12  France

      Pascal Kamina

INTRODUCTION 12.01

1. SCOPE OF EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS 12.10

1.1 The right of reproduction (Article 2) 12.11

1.2 The rights of communication to the public/making available right (Article 3) 12.12

1.3 Right of distribution (Article 4) 12.15

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 12.17

2.1 General view 12.17

2.2 Temporary reproductions (Article 5(1)) 12.20

2.3 Private copying 12.21

2.4 Other exceptions 12.24

2.5 Three-step test (Article 5(5)) 12.26

2.6 Other particular national features: extended collective licensing (Recitals 18 and 26) 12.28

2.7 Other particular national features: digital exploitation of copyright-protected but commercially unavailable books (Recitals 18 and 30) 12.30

2.8 Other particular national features: compulsory collective management scheme for the reproduction and communication to the public, by search engine services, of plastic, graphic and photographic works (Recitals 18 and 30) 12.33

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES AND RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION (ARTICLES 6 AND 7) 12.37

3.1 General presentation 12.38

3.2 Implementation 12.42

4. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 12.45

13  Germany

      Martin Schaefer and Brigitte Lindner

INTRODUCTION 13.001

1. RIGHTS 13.010

1.1 Reproduction 13.010

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 13.015

1.3 Distribution 13.034

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 13.042

2.1 General principles – three-step test and lawful source 13.042

2.2 Implementation of Article 5(1) of the Directive 13.050

2.3 Catalogue exceptions 13.053

2.4 Orphan works 13.060

2.5 Other particular national features in the field of limitations and exceptions 13.061

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 13.075

3.1 Definition of technological measures/access and copy controls 13.078

3.2 Preparatory acts 13.083

3.3 Intervention mechanism 13.085

3.4 Exclusion of interactive services from the intervention mechanism 13.086

3.5 Civil remedies and criminal sanctions 13.087

3.6 Other features 13.090

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 13.091

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 13.093

5.1 Implementation of Article 8(3) of the Directive 13.093

5.2 Cease and desist letters 13.102

6. ANY OTHER PARTICULAR FEATURES AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL 13.105

LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK/CONCLUSIONS 13.106

14  Greece

      Evangelia Vagena

INTRODUCTION 14.01

1. RIGHTS 14.09

1.1 Reproduction right 14.11

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 14.15

1.3 Distribution 14.23

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 14.27

2.1 Mandatory exception 14.28

2.2 Catalogue exceptions 14.29

2.3 Limitations already provided in the Greek law in line with the Directive 14.31

2.4 Limitations provided for in the Directive and not existing in the Greek law 14.48

2.5 Three-step test 14.49

2.6 Lawful source 14.51

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 14.53

3.1 Sanction 14.57

3.2 The ‘intervention mechanism’ 14.58

3.3 No right to crack 14.60

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 14.61

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 14.63

5.1 Civil sanctions 14.64

5.2 Criminal sanctions 14.65

5.3 Interim measures 14.66

5.4 Injunction against intermediaries 14.67

5.5 New procedure about infringement of rights on the Internet 14.71

LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK/CONCLUSIONS 14.72

15  Hungary

      Mihály Ficsor

INTRODUCTION 15.001

1. RIGHTS 15.005

1.1 General provisions 15.005

1.2 Reproduction 15.010

1.3 Communication to the public/making available right 15.013

1.4 Distribution 15.029

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 15.035

2.1 General principles – three-step test and lawful source 15.035

2.2 Implementation of Article 5(1) of Directive 2001/29/EC 15.046

2.3 ‘Catalogue’ exceptions and limitations provided in Article 5(2) to (5) of Directive 2001/29/EC 15.048

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 15.078

3.1 Provisions on the protection of technological measures 15.078

3.2 Intervention mechanism 15.080

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 15.085

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 15.087

6. PARTICULAR FEATURES OF THE PROVISIONS ON LIABILITY OF SERVICE PROVIDERS 15.100

CONCLUSIONS 15.106

16  Ireland

      Linda Scales

INTRODUCTION: LEGISLATIVE BACKGROUND 16.001

1. RIGHTS 16.013

1.1 Reproduction 16.013

1.2 The right of communication to the public and the making available right 16.019

1.3 Distribution right 16.023

1.4 Adaptation right 16.025

2. EXCEPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 16.026

2.1 Mandatory exception in the Directive 16.029

2.2 Optional exceptions in the Directive 16.030

2.3 Ireland’s transposition of Article 5 of the Directive 16.073

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 16.078

3.1 Criminal offences 16.079

3.2 Civil protection of TPMs 16.080

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 16.086

5. ENFORCEMENT 16.087

5.1 The enforcement provisions of domestic legislation 16.089

5.2 The music producers and the ISPs 16.092

5.3 The movie case 16.113

6. LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK/CONCLUSIONS 16.118

17  Italy

      Stefania Ercolani

INTRODUCTION 17.001

1. RIGHTS 17.007

1.1 Reproduction 17.008

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 17.011

1.3 Public performance right 17.022

1.4 Right of distribution and exhaustion 17.025

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 17.031

2.1 General rules 17.031

2.2 Minor exceptions and limitations 17.039

2.3 Temporary copies 17.046

2.4 Exceptions for information, study, research and teaching 17.048

2.5 Public lending right 17.056

2.6 Reprography 17.059

2.7 Private copying for personal use 17.065

2.8 Exceptions for social purposes 17.081

2.9 Provisions in favour of beneficiaries and limitations 17.084

2.10 Orphan works 17.088

2.11 Provisions on the fees for public performance right 17.092

3. TERM OF PROTECTION 17.096

4. ENFORCEMENT 17.099

4.1 Precautionary and provisional measures (Articles 161–164) 17.102

4.2 Rules on the acquisition of evidence 17.108

4.3 Damages 17.114

4.4 Civil sanctions 17.117

5. AGCOM REGULATION 17.120

6. COLLECTIVE RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT 17.124

7. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 17.134

8. LEGISLATVE OUTLOOK/CONCLUSIONS 17.142

18  Latvia

      Janis Bordans and Ingrida Veiksa

INTRODUCTION – LEGISLATIVE HISTORY 18.001

1. RIGHTS 18.010

1.1 Reproduction right 18.010

1.2 Right of communication to the public/making available 18.013

1.3 Distribution right 18.022

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS (Article 5) 18.027

2.1 General principles – three-step test and lawful source 18.028

2.2 Temporary acts of reproduction, transient copies (Article 5(1)) 18.030

2.3 Catalogue exceptions 18.032

2.4 Other particular national features 18.067

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 18.071

3.1 Definition of technological measure: access and copy controls (Article 6(3)) 18.071

3.2 Circumvention of technological measures (Article 6(1)) 18.073

3.3 Preparatory acts (Article 6(2)) 18.075

3.4 Intervention mechanism (Article 6(4)) 18.076

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION (Article 7) 18.083

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES (Article 8) 18.086

5.1 Civil sanctions 18.086

5.2 Administrative sanctions 18.093

5.3 Criminal sanctions 18.094

6. PARTICULAR FEATURES IN LATVIAN LAW 18.097

6.1 Personal rights to revoke the work from exploitation 18.097

6.2 Remuneration to collecting societies 18.099

6.3 Rights of broadcasting organizations 18.100

6.4 Extension of the term of copyright 18.103

6.5 Balance between rightholders and society 18.104

CONCLUSION 18.105

19  Lithuania

      Edita Ivanauskiene

INTRODUCTION 19.01

1. RIGHTS 19.06

1.1 Reproduction 19.06

1.2 Communication to the public 19.09

1.3 Distribution 19.21

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 19.24

2.1 Temporary acts of reproduction 19.28

2.2 Reproduction for personal use 19.32

2.3 Reprographic reproduction 19.42

2.4 Reproduction for teaching and scientific research purposes 19.47

2.5 Display of works 19.52

2.6 Other exceptions and limitations 19.54

2.7 Mandatory collective rights administration 19.56

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 19.58

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 19.60

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 19.61

6. CONCLUSIONS 19.63

20  Luxembourg

      Katia Manhaeve and Thierry Schiltz

INTRODUCTION 20.001

1. RIGHTS 20.005

1.1 Reproduction 20.008

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 20.013

1.3 Distribution 20.021

2. LIMITATIONS 20.029

2.1 General principles – three-step test 20.032

2.2 Implementation of Article 5(1) Directive 2001/29/EC 20.037

2.3 Catalogue exceptions 20.040

2.4 Other particular national features 20.071

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 20.083

3.1 Definition of technological measures/access and copy controls 20.084

3.2 Circumvention of technological measures 20.086

3.3 Preparatory acts 20.088

3.4 Intervention mechanism 20.089

3.5 Exclusion of interactive services from intervention mechanism 20.095

3.6 Civil remedies and criminal sanctions 20.096

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 20.099

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 20.103

5.1 Civil sanctions 20.103

5.2 Criminal sanctions 20.141

CONCLUSIONS 20.151

21  Malta

      Paul Micallef Grimaud and Sarah Louise Azzopardi

INTRODUCTION 21.01

1. RIGHTS 21.06

1.1 Reproduction 21.07

1.2 Communication to the public 21.17

1.3 Distribution 21.30

2. EXCEPTIONS 21.32

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES AND RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 21.40

3.1 Protection of technological measures 21.41

3.2 Protection of rights-management information 21.49

4. ENFORCEMENT 21.51

CONCLUSIONS 21.59

22  Netherlands

      Antoon A. Quaedvlieg

1. PRELIMINARY REMARKS 22.001

1.1 History of the Dutch implementation: a careful and intensive process 22.001

1.2 Critical spirit of the implementation 22.003

1.3 1995: Dior/Evora permits analogue application of exceptions 22.004

1.4 Analogous interpretation after the Directive 22.007

1.5 Fair use v closed list and three-step test 22.011

1.6 Consequences for the implementation 22.015

1.7 Interpretation in conformity with the Directive pre-empts the Dutch legislative history 22.017

1.8 Prejudicial questions to the European Court of Justice 22.018

1.9 Language versions of the Directive 22.019

1.10 General reception of the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice 22.020

2. EXPLOITATION RIGHTS 22.021

2.1 Introduction 22.021

2.2 The right of reproduction 22.024

2.3 The right of distribution; exhaustion 22.034

2.4 The right of communication to the public and of making available 22.037

3. EXCEPTIONS 22.082

3.1 Article 5(1) of the Directive 22.082

3.2 Article 5(2) of the Directive 22.083

3.3 Article 5(3) of the Directive 22.119

3.4 Article 5(5) of the Directive: three-step test 22.148

4. TECHNOLOGICAL PROTECTION MEASURES 22.167

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 22.171

6. BY WAY OF A CONCLUSION: POST-IMPLEMENTATION BY THE JUDICIARY 22.175

23  Poland

      Wojciech Dziomdziora

INTRODUCTION 23.01

1. RIGHTS 23.16

1.1 Reproduction right 23.16

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 23.22

1.3 Scope: authors’ rights and related rights (exclusive right – remuneration) 23.25

1.4 Exhaustion in the online environment 23.31

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 23.32

2.1 General principles – the three-step test and lawful source 23.32

2.2 Catalogue of exceptions 23.35

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 23.87

3.1 Definition of technological measures 23.87

3.2 Civil remedies and criminal sanctions 23.88

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 23.92

CONCLUSIONS 23.96

24  Portugal

      Patricia Akester

INTRODUCTION 24.001

1. RIGHTS 24.007

1.1 Reproduction 24.007

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 24.009

1.3 Distribution 24.026

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 24.030

2.1 Temporary copies 24.033

2.2 Private copying 24.036

2.3 Other exceptions 24.049

2.4 Orphan works 24.075

2.5 General provisions 24.084

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 24.086

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 24.124

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 24.128

6. CONCLUSIONS 24.130

ANNEX: OVERVIEW IN TABLE FORM 24.141

25  Romania

      Maria Voican

INTRODUCTION 25.01

1. RIGHTS 25.02

1.1 Reproduction 25.02

1.2 Communication to the public/making available right 25.08

1.3 Distribution 25.20

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 25.26

2.1 General principles – three-step test and lawful source 25.26

2.2 Article 5(1) of the Directive 25.32

2.3 Catalogue exceptions in respect of reproduction right 25.33

2.4 Catalogue exceptions in respect of reproduction and communication to the public rights 25.35

2.5 Orphan works 25.40

2.6 Other particular national features: mandatory collective administration, extended collective licensing, relationship of limitations and exceptions and contracts 25.42

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 25.58

3.1 Definition of technological measures 25.58

3.2 Scope of protection 25.60

3.3 Intervention mechanism 25.61

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 25.64

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES IN PARTICULAR IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 8.3 25.66

5.1 Criminal remedies 25.66

5.2 Civil remedies 25.67

6. ANY OTHER PARTICULAR FEATURES AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL 25.71

6.1 Internet service provider responsibility 25.71

7. LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK/CONCLUSIONS 25.76

26  Slovak Republic

      Slavomír Olšovský and Jakub Jošt   

1. INTRODUCTION INTO COPYRIGHT PROTECTION IN SLOVAKIA 26.001

1.1 Brief outline of the history 26.001

1.2 Outline of main legislative changes in the 2015 Act in comparison with the 2003 Act 26.024

2. SOME INFORMATION ON THE CONTEXT OF THE 2015 ACT 26.030

2.1 General overview of the Slovak economy 26.030

2.2 Role of the Internet in Slovakia 26.043

3. OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSPOSITION OF DIRECTIVE 2001/29/EC INTO SLOVAK COPYRIGHT LAW 26.048

4. IMPLEMENTATION OF OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM ARTICLES 2 TO 4 OF DIRECTIVE 2001/29/EC 26.054

4.1 Implementation of Article 2 on the reproduction right 26.056

4.2 Implementation of Article 3 on the right of communication to the public of works and the right of making available to the public of other subject-matter 26.064

4.3 Implementation of Article 4 on the distribution right  26.067

5. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 5 ON EXCEPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 26.069

5.1 Implementation of Article 5(1) 26.075

5.2 Implementation of the catalogue in Article 5(2) 26.077

5.3 Implementation of the catalogue in Article 5(3) 26.100

5.4 Implementation of Article 5(5) 26.128

6. ORPHAN WORKS/OUT-OF-COMMERCE WORKS 26.132

7. EXTENDED COLLECTIVE LICENSING 26.140

8. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 6 OF DIRECTIVE 2001/29/EC ON TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 26.142

9. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 7 OF DIRECTIVE 2001/29/EC ON RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 26.148

10. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE 8 DIRECTIVE 2001/29/EC ON SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 26.152

27  Slovenia

      Miha Trampuž

INTRODUCTION 27.01

1. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY 27.02

1.1 Relation of the Directive with the existing copyright acquis 27.03

1.2 New legislation on collective management 27.06

2. RIGHTS 27.07

2.1 Reproduction 27.08

2.2 Communication to the public 27.09

2.3 Right of making available to the public 27.12

2.4 Distribution right 27.15

2.5 Exhaustion rule 27.17

3. EXCEPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 27.19

3.1 Legislation 27.19

3.2 General – three-step test and lawful source 27.20

3.3 Relationship exceptions v contracts 27.23

3.4 Temporary acts of reproduction 27.24

3.5 Private and internal copying 27.25

3.6 Orphan works 27.27

3.7 Teaching or scientific research 27.29

3.8 Disabled people 27.31

4. MANDATORY COLLECTIVE MANAGEMENT 27.32

5. TECHNOLOGICAL PROTECTION MEASURES AND RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 27.36

5.1 General 27.36

5.2 Interface between TPMs and limitations 27.38

6. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 27.40

6.1 General civil measures 27.41

6.2 Corrective measures 27.42

6.3 Damages 27.43

6.4 Measures for misdemeanours 27.44

6.5 Criminal measures 27.45

CONCLUSIONS 27.46

ANNEX – OVERVIEW IN TABLE FORM – SLOVENIA 27.49

28  Spain

      Marta García León

INTRODUCTION 28.001

1. EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS 28.013

1.1 Right of reproduction (Article 2 of the Directive) 28.013

1.2 Right of public communication (Article 3 of the Directive) 28.015

1.3 Right of distribution (Article 4 of the Directive) 28.025

2. EXCEPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 28.029

2.1 General principles – three-step test and lawful source 28.029

2.2 The mandatory exception regarding temporary acts of reproduction 28.039

2.3 The catalogue exceptions 28.040

3. ORPHAN WORKS 28.104

4. PROTECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES AND RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 28.116

4.1 Protection of technological measures 28.116

4.2 Protection of rights-management information (Article 7 of the Directive) 28.134

5. SANCTIONS AND PROCEDURES (ARTICLE8 OF THE DIRECTIVE) 28.135

5.1 Criminal Sanctions 28.142

5.2 Civil Remedies 28.150

5.3 Administrative remedies and sanctions 28.166

6. OTHER FEATURES 28.174

LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK 28.177

29  Sweden

      Peter Adamsson 

INTRODUCTION 29.001

1. RIGHTS 29.009

1.1 Reproduction 29.009

1.2 Case law 29.019

1.3 Communication to the public/making available right 29.033

1.4 Distribution 29.069

2. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS 29.072

2.1 General principles: three-step test and lawful source 29.072

2.2 Implementation of Article 5(1) of Directive 2001/29/EC 29.077

2.3 Case law 29.079

2.4 Catalogue exceptions 29.080

2.5 Other particular national features: mandatory collective administration and extended collective licensing 29.090

3. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES 29.092

3.1 Definition of technological measures 29.092

3.2 Circumvention of technological measures 29.095

3.3 Intervention mechanism 29.098

3.4 Civil remedies and criminal sanctions 29.099

3.5 Other features 29.100

4. RIGHTS-MANAGEMENT INFORMATION 29.101

5. SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES 29.102

5.1 Case law 29.113

LEGISLATIVE OUTLOOK/CONCLUSION 29.121

30  United Kingdom

      Tanya Aplin

INTRODUCTION 30.01

1. ORIGINALITY 30.04

2. EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS 30.13

2.1 Reproduction 30.13

2.2 Communication to the public 30.21

3. EXCEPTIONS 30.31

3.1 Parody 30.32

3.2 Quotation 30.39

3.3 Private copying exception 30.46

3.4 Three-step test 30.48

4. UK COPYRIGHT LAW POST-BREXIT 30.54

CONCLUSION 30.58

Bibliography

Index