Chapter 1 Introduction: towards a new design discipline
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Some of our most pressing societal innovation challenges today are complex innovation ecosystems. They ask for complementing conventional ‘expert innovation’ with ‘experience innovation’. This chapter articulates this urgently needed perspective and illustrates it with some concrete challenges we can easily relate to such as the challenge of the ever more deserted city centers. The chapter starts with the paradigm shift from closed to open innovation systems. It goes on to explain that, besides needing a new innovation discipline, which Lichtenstein (2014) calls generative emergence, we also need a new design discipline, which Nijs (2014) calls Imagineering. Imagineering uses a Creative Tension Engine (CTE) to trigger an engaging mind-shift that can set the stage for novelty to emerge in a self-organizing way. The argument is made that a CTE can act as an infrastructure to enable novelty to emerge on a micro-organizational level in a similar way to how the creative industries act at a macro level in society.