Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research
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Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research

Multi-Item Scales Crossing Disciplines and Contexts

Edited by Nicole Coviello and Helena Yli-Renko

The Handbook of Measures for International Entrepreneurship Research is a user-friendly collection of multi-item measures developed and used in the research of international entrepreneurship and important areas related to it: international business, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategy, and innovation.
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Index: Index

  • early-stage technology-based firms (ESTBFs) 477
  • Edwards, J.R. 8
  • effectiveness in acquiring new information 22
  • effectiveness in acquiring new resources 24
    • measurement of 24
  • effectuation 87, 89
    • measurement of 8790
    • relationship with causation 88, 91101
  • Egypt 20
  • Engelen, A. 77, 82, 117, 120
  • Engle, R.L. 185, 189, 191, 194, 197, 200, 203, 205, 208, 211, 214
  • entrepreneurial management 489
  • entrepreneurial orientation (EO) 9
    • international 418
    • relationship with centralization 78
  • entrepreneurial self-efficacy 27
    • measurement of 268
  • entrepreneurial strategic posture (entrepreneurial orientation) 493
    • measurement of 4935
  • environmental competitiveness 179
  • environmental dynamism 181
    • measurement of 1812
  • Eriksson, K. 250, 360, 363, 429
  • evaluation of partner performance 573
    • measurement of 5735
  • exploitative innovation 576
    • measurement of 5768
  • exploitative market learning 322
    • measurement of 3224
  • exploratory innovation 579
  • p. 628exploratory market learning 325
    • measurement of 3257
  • export capabilities 406
    • measurement of 4067
  • export entrepreneurial-oriented behaviour 496
    • measurement of 4969
  • export market orientation 500
  • export market strategy
    • distribution adaptation 507
      • measurement of 5078
    • pricing adaptation 509
    • product adaptation 511
    • promotion adaptation 513
  • export venture performance 582
    • measurement of 5824
  • exposure to foreign market peculiarities 103
    • measurement of 1045
  • Im, S. 82, 608, 611
  • imitability 109
  • Inc. 258
    • 500 list (1995–2000) 260
  • incremental innovation capability 422
    • measurement of 4224
  • India 47
  • information and communication (ICT) 422
    • technology capability 422
    • measurement of 42221
  • innovation ambidexterity 112
  • innovation generation 266
  • innovation performance
    • incremental 588
    • radical 591
      • measurement of 5913
  • innovation radicalness 594
    • measurement of 5945
  • innovation type 596
    • measurement of 5968
  • institutional impediments 183
    • measurement of 1834
  • institutional influences
    • contract enforcement 185
      • measurement of 1857
  • corruption 188
  • cost of business closing 191
    • measurement of 1913
  • costs of trade 194
    • measurement of 1946
  • ease of hiring 197
    • measurement of 1979
  • ease of starting a business 200
  • economic situation 203
    • measurement of 2034
  • infrastructure 205
    • measurement of 2057
  • need
    • measurement of 2089
  • social norms 211
  • taxes 214
  • interaction with foreign market players 250
  • international business affiliate (IBA) 33843, 378
  • international business competence 425
    • measurement of 4258
  • International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation 307, 310, 357, 372, 375, 602
  • international entrepreneurial culture (IEC) 519
  • international entrepreneurial orientation 527
    • measurement of 5279
  • international entrepreneurial proclivity
    • innovativeness 530
    • proactiveness 533
      • measurement of 5335
    • risk-taking 536
      • measurement of 5368
  • international joint venture (IJV) 21718
  • internationalization 11213, 123, 126, 129, 132, 345, 348, 43031, 459, 516
  • investments 155
  • Israel 1479
  • Ma, R. 3, 29
  • managerial network
    • strength of expressive ties 253
      • measurement of 2534
    • strength of instrumental ties 255
      • measurement of 2557
  • Manev, P.V. 253, 255
  • Mann, F.C. 232
  • March, J.G. 325, 576, 579
  • market dynamism 217
  • market information acquisition 350
  • market information use 352
    • measurement of 3524
  • market launch capability 432
    • measurement of 4323
  • market orientation (v1) 546
    • measurement of 5469
  • market orientation (v2) 550
  • market turbulence 219
  • marketing capabilities
    • distribution capability 434
      • measurement of 4345
  • (for exporting) architectural 436
  • (for exporting) specialized 441
    • measurement of 4415
  • marketing communication capability 446
    • measurement of 4468
  • pricing capability 449
  • product development capability 452
    • measurement of 4524
  • marketing exploitation strategies 554
    • measurement of 5546
  • marketing exploration strategies 557
    • measurement of 5579
  • Marketing Science Institute (MSI)
  • Markman, G.D. 61, 67, 69
  • Marlow, S. 208
  • Marsden, P.V. 253, 255
  • Marvel, M.R. 3, 53, 55, 57, 5960, 594
  • Matsumo, K. 3
  • McDermott, C. 120
  • McDonough, E.F. 602
  • McGarth, R.G. 325
  • McKee, D. 543
  • means-driven vs. goal-driven 97
    • measurement of 989
  • Menguc, B. 422, 614
  • Mexico 112
  • Miller, D. 9, 181, 217, 493, 496, 527, 565
  • Miner, A.S. 281, 284, 386, 620
  • Miner, J.B. 26
  • Mitchell, J.R. 3, 181
  • Mohr, J. 232, 260, 393, 455
  • Moorman, C. 307, 310, 350, 352, 354, 372, 375, 386, 519, 554, 602, 620
  • Morgan, N.A. 406, 434, 4367, 441, 446, 449, 463, 466, 480, 582
  • Morgan, R.M. 129, 161, 228, 232
  • Morrison, A. 565
  • Mowday, R.T. 228
  • multinational corporations (MNCs) 617
  • Murray, G.C. 250
  • Musteen, M. 328
  • Nahapiet, J. 290
  • Narver, J.C. 322, 500, 519, 539, 550,599
  • National Business Incubation Association 53, 55, 57, 59, 594
  • Navarro, A. 406
  • negative affect
    • measurement of 13, 15
  • Nelson, R. 315
  • Nelson, R.E. 712
  • Netherlands 501
  • network capabilities 455
    • measurement of 4558
  • network capability upgrading 459
  • networking capability 461
    • measurement of 4613
  • new process creativity 354
    • measurement of 3546
  • p. 632new product alliances 357, 3756
  • new product cost-efficiency 599
  • new product creativity 357
    • measurement of 3579
  • new product development (NPD) 243, 232
  • new product differentiation 605
    • measurement of 6057
  • new product meaningfulness 608
  • new product novelty 611
  • new product performance 614
  • new venture’s commitment to supplier 258
    • measurement of 2589
  • new venture’s power over supplier 260
  • New Zealand 47
  • Nonaka, I. 315, 335
  • Nooteboom, B. 332
  • Norway 1479
  • O’Donnell, S.W. 80
  • Oke, A. 301
  • operational flexibilities
    • cognitive flexibility 123
      • measurement of 1235
    • political flexibility 126
      • measurement of 1268
    • relational flexibility 12930
    • structural flexibility 132
      • measurement of 1324
    • opportunity recognition ability 29
      • measurement of 2930
  • Organ, D.W. 251, 361, 364, 367
  • organizational culture
  • organizational innovativeness 147
  • outcome-based creativity 370, 617
  • overseas market-related exploitative capabilities 463
    • measurement of 4635
  • overseas market-related explorative capabilities 466
    • measurement of 4668
  • Overton, T.S. 233
  • Paladino, A. 3
  • Palmatier, R.W. 393, 395
  • Papadopoulos, N. 9
  • Parkhe, A. 262
  • Parry, M.E. 350, 352, 605, 620
  • partner fit 262
    • measurement of 2624
  • partner opportunism 265
    • measurement of 2657
  • partnerships vs. competitive market analysis 100
    • measurement of 1012
  • passion for developing 31
    • measurement of 323
  • passion for founding 34
    • measurement of 346
  • passion for inventing 37
    • measurement of 379
  • Patel, P.C. 389
  • Pearce, J.L. 298
  • Pedersen, T. 360, 363
  • Pekar Jr., P. 315
  • Peng, M.W. 298, 459
  • perceived business familiarity 360
  • perceived institutional familiarity 363
    • measurement of 3635
  • perceived passion 40
    • measurement of 4042
  • p. 633perception of preparedness 43
    • measurement of 435
  • Pérez-Nordtvdt, L. 338, 341, 378
  • performance
  • Perreault Jr., W.D. 270, 273, 573
  • personal cultural orientation 46, 49
    • measurement of 4652
  • Peter, J.P. 1
  • Petersen, B. 360, 363
  • Podsakoff, P.M. 159, 186, 189, 192, 198, 201, 209, 251, 361, 364, 367
  • Porter, M.E. 565
  • Portugal 511, 513
  • positive affect
    • measurement of 1618
  • Prahalad, C.K. 319, 335
  • Pratt’s Guide to Venture Capital Sources 155, 293, 295
  • Preece, S.B. 477
  • prior foreign market analysis 366
    • measurement of 3668
  • prior knowledge of customer problems 53
    • measurement of 534
  • prior knowledge of markets 55
    • measurement of 556
  • prior knowledge of technology 57
    • measurement of 578
  • prior knowledge of ways to serve markets 59
    • measurement of 5960
  • procedural justice 268
    • measurement of 2689
  • process-based creativity 369
  • process information acquisition 372
    • measurement of 3724
  • product development exploitative capabilities 469
  • product development explorative capabilities 472
    • measurement of 4724
  • product information acquisition 375
    • measurement of 3757
  • protectability 152
    • measurement of 1524
  • Prusak, L. 315
  • quality focus 560
  • Quic BV business directory 554
  • Quinn, R.E.
  • Taiwan 29, 217
  • Tang, J. 22, 63, 65, 67
  • team creativity 1678
    • measurement of 1678
  • team information exchange 384
    • measurement of 3846
  • team-level experiential knowledge 386
    • measurement of 3868
  • technological distinctiveness 169
  • technological orientation 562
    • measurement of 5624
  • technology sectors 103, 250, 360, 363, 366
    • high-technology 112
  • technology scanning
    • measurement of 1712
  • technological turbulence 222
    • measurement of 2224
  • Teece, D.J. 315
  • Tellegen, A. 13, 1617
  • Tellis, G.J. 588, 591, 622
  • tie strength 304
    • knowledge redundancy 307
      • measurement of 3079
    • relational embeddedness 310
  • Tierney, P. 147
  • Tobin, D.R. 539
  • Tsai, W. 281, 290
  • Tucchi, C.L. 262
  • Turnley, W.H. 63, 65
  • Tushman, M.L. 576, 579
  • unique products development 565
    • measurement of 5656
  • Xin, K.R. 298
  • Xuereb, J.-M. 562