Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law
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Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law

Edited by Michael Faure

The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. The Encyclopedia is organised into 12 volumes around top-level subjects – such as water, energy and climate change – that reflect some of the most pressing issues facing us today. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers.
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Abbreviations

API

American Petroleum Institute

BOEMRE

Bureau of Ocean and Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement

CAA

Clean Air Act

CAIR

Clean Air Interstate Rule

CCP

Critical control point

CDM

Clean Development Mechanism

CEM

Continuous emissions monitoring

CEN

European Committee for Standardisation

CENELEC

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

CERES

Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies

CFCs

Chlorofluorocarbons

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

CJEU

Court of Justice of the European Union

CPM

Carbon Pricing Mechanism

CUP

Cambridge University Press

CSR

Corporate social responsibility

CWA

Clean Water Act

DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DiD

Difference-in-difference [model]

DJSI

Dow Jones Sustainability Index

DoD

Department of Defence

DOE

Department of Energy

DSU

Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes

ECHA

European Chemicals Agency

ECJ

European Court of Justice

ECtHR

European Court of Human Rights

EEA

European Environment Agency

EFSA

European Food Safety Agency

EHRR

European Human Rights Reports

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

EJIL

European Journal of International Law

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPCRA

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

EPEAT

Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool

EPP

Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

ESD

Effort Sharing Decision

p. xvETS

Emission Trading System/Scheme

EU

European Union

EUCFR

European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights

EUTR

European Timber Regulation

FAR

Federal Acquisition Regulation

FEMP

Federal Energy Management Programme

FLEGT

Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council

GAO

Government Accountability Office

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GDP

Gross domestic product

GEF

Global Environmental Facility

GHG

Greenhouse gases

GRI

Global Reporting Initiative

GS

Gold Standard

HACCP

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

HUP

Harvard University Press

ICLEI

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives

IMF

International Monetary Fund

INPO

Institute of Nuclear Power Operators

ISO

International Organization for Standardisation

JI

Joint Implementation

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

LGMA

Leafy Greens Product Handler Marketing Agreement

MAD

Market Abuse Directive

MATCH

Adhoc Group for the Modelling and Assessment of Contributions to Climate Change

MiFID

Markets in Financial Instruments Directive

MLR

Modern Law Review

MRV

Monitoring, Reporting and Verification

MSB

Marginal social benefit

MSC

Marginal social cost

MSR

Market Stability Reserve

NASPO

National Association of State Procurement Officials

NBER

National Bureau of Economic Research

NGO

Non-governmental organisation

NPDES

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

NPRI

National Pollutant Release Inventory

NRC

National Regulatory Commission

NSPS

New Source Performance Standards

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OEHHA

Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

OJLS

Oxford Journal of Legal Studies

OPEC

Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OUP

Oxford University Press

p. xviPEFC

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes

PER

Public environmental regulation

PNAS

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

PPP

Polluter-pays principle

PRTRs

Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers

PSM

Process Safety Management

PTR

Private transnational regulation

PUP

Princeton University Press

RAA

Regulatory Arrangement Approach

RCRA

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

REACH

Registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemical substances

REC

Renewable energy credit

RECIEL

Review of European, Comparative & International Law

RED

European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC

RFF

Resources for the future

RGGI

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

RMP

Risk Management Planning

ROC

Renewable obligation certificate

SCM

Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (Agreement on)

SEMS

Safety and environmental management standards

SFI

Sustainable Forestry Initiative

SFM

Sustainable forest management

SNAP

Significant New Alternative Policy

SPA

Special Protection Areas

SR

Sustainability reporting

TEU

Treaty on the European Union

TFEU

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

TRI

Toxics Release Inventory

TRIPS

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

TURA

Toxic Use Reduction Act

UK

United Kingdom

UN

United Nations

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNITAR

United Nations Institute for Training and Research

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

VAT

Value added tax

VCS

Verified Carbon Standard

VEA

Voluntary environmental agreement

WCI

Western Climate Initiative

WHO

World Health Organization

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organization

YUP

Yale University Press